Arsinoitherium was a strange Embrythipod Probiscidean, related closely to the Moeritherium. It lived in the mangrove deltas and swamps of North Africa, during the Late Eocene Epoch of the Tertiary (Palaeogene) Period, 38-33.5 Million Years Ago. It was a large herbivore, slightly larger than a hippopotamus, and similar in appearance. The most distinctive feature of this strange mammal, are of course the two pairs of horns that adorn the skull. One pair sit above the snout, and a far larger and very broad pair protrude in front of the eyebrows, and would have created a blind-spot directly in front of its nose!

Therefore, it would have tilted its head frequently to simply look straight forward. Why this animal evolved such a seemingly awkard ornamentation, is difficult to understand, though the best guess is that it was for mating contests and would have been intimidating to would-be predators and mating rivals. It was probably agressive in solitary behaviours, and was clearly unintelligent, as with many ancient mammals, such as the Brontotheres that lived in different habitats in the same time Arsinoitherium did. It gets its name from a very ancient Egyptian Queen, Arsinoe II, meaning, 'Arsinoe's Beast'